Learning Objectives

• Learn how our systems change the meals we eat in to ATP to provide our muscle groups with the strength they need to move • Take a look at the three metabolic systems that make ATP


Fuel pertaining to Exercise: Bioenergetics and Muscles Metabolism


• Substrates

– Energy sources that we generate energy (adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) – Carbs, fat, necessary protein

Measuring Energy Release

• Can be computed from high temperature produced • 1 caloric (cal) = heat energy required to increase 1 g of normal water from 16. 5°C to fifteen. 5°C • 1, 500 cal sama dengan 1 kcal = one particular Calorie (dietary)

• Bioenergetics

– Process of converting substrates into strength – Performed at cell phone level

• Metabolism: reactions in the body

Metabolic rate and Bioenergetics

• Nutrition from foods are the substrates for metabolic process and are provided and placed as: – Carbohydrate – Fat – Protein

Substrates: Fuel pertaining to Exercise

• Carbohydrate, excess fat, protein

– Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

• Each cell contains chemical pathways that convert these substrates to usable energy, a procedure called bioenergetics • The we derive from foodstuff is kept in cells as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • ATP serves as the immediate source of power for most physique functions which include muscle anxiete

• Energy from chemical bonds in food trapped in high-energy mixture ATP • Resting: 50% carbohydrate, 50% fat • Exercise (short): more carbohydrate • Exercise (long): carbs, fat



• All carbs converted to sugar

– 4. 1 kcal/g; ~2, 500 kcal trapped in body – Primary ATP substrate to get muscles, human brain – Extra glucose placed as glycogen in liver organ, muscles

Excess fat

• Successful substrate, useful storage

– 9. four kcal/g – +70, 1000 kcal kept in body

• Glycogen modified back to glucose when needed to generate more ATP • Glycogen stores limited (2, 500 kcal), must rely on dietary carbohydrate to replenish

• Energy base for long term, less extreme exercise

– High net ATP produce but slow ATP development – Should be broken down in free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol – Only FFAs are used to make ATP

Table 2 . one particular


• Energy substrate during starvation

– some. 1 kcal/g – Must be converted into sugar (gluconeogenesis)

• Can also convert into FFAs (lipogenesis)

– For strength storage – For cell energy base

• Healthy proteins must be split up to their standard units—amino acids—to be used pertaining to energy

Physique 2 . 1

The Lock-and-Key Action of Enzymes inside the Catabolism of Compounds • Enzymes control the rate of totally free energy relieve from substrates • Tend not to start chemical reactions or collection ATP deliver • Perform facilitate malfunction (catabolism) of substrates • Enzyme brands end together with the suffix -ase


Bioenergetics: Basic Strength Systems

• ATP storage limited • Body must constantly synthesize new ATP • 3 ATP synthesis pathways – ATP-PCr program (anaerobic metabolism) – Glycolytic system (anaerobic metabolism) – Oxidative program (aerobic metabolism)

ATP Is usually Generated Through 3 Energy Systems

ATP-PCr System

• Cells retail store small amounts of ATP, and phosphocreatine (PCr), which is broken down to make ATP • Release of ATP via PCr is definitely facilitated by the enzyme creatine kinase • This process would not require o2 (anaerobic) • ATP and PCr preserve the muscle's energy requirements for 3-15 sec during an all out sprint • 1 mole of ATP is produced per a single mole of PCr

ATP-Phosphocreatine System


Glycogen Break down and Synthesis

Glycolysis is definitely the breakdown of glucose; it might be anaerobic or aerobic. Glycogenesis is the procedure by which glycogen is produced from glucose to be kept in the liver organ or muscle tissue. Glycogenolysis is the process in which glycogen is definitely broken down in to glucose-1-phosphate being used for energy production.

Although ATP is being used at a very high rate, the energy from PCr is used to resynthesize ATP, avoiding the ATP level via decreasing. At exhaustion, both equally ATP and PCr...